A Card play with devils

By Sergey Konstantinov

The majority of our European partners had a blast, discussing the anniversary of the beginning of the World War II, especially in criticism of the actions of our country. Whether it is necessary to reply to the frank distortion of the historic facts? It costs but not in the logic «you are another» or not within the limits of campaign «on counteraction of falsification», and something else, and by means of the system teaching and studying of the history. Then also it is not necessary to explain to anybody in detail how Stalin forced the West to be at the war with Hitler.

The Soviet-German non-aggression pact (1939) or, as it is named, «the Pact of Molotov-Ribbentrop» and especially, the supplements to it, known as «confidential reports» – one of the most discussed and mysterious international agreements in history of the 20 century. Though it is not a secret in the treaty.

On the one hand, it is the ordinary non-aggression pact. Poland had signed the same nonaggression with Hitler in 1934. In 1939 France had roughly broken the allied contract with Poland that led to its full defeat. Nevertheless, currently, anybody does not accuse Poland of collusion with Hitler and nobody reproaches France in with the treachery of Poland and the subsequent separate peace with Germany. Though such accusations would be absolutely proved. Here, the Soviet-German pact, to which «confidential cards» (about section of areas of influence) had been published in «Pravda» (the Soviet newspaper; the translator’ comment), is declared to be «crimiminal» and «cynical».

Why do these «initiatives» proceed both from the former German camp, and from the countries of the Allies of World War II (anti- Hitlerite coalition)?

The case is that this contract forced Hitler to turn on the West (but fortunately, France had formally declared the war to him at once after the attack to Poland) and, finally, forced the West to be at war with Hitler. Though till 1940 the joint attack of Germany, Britain and France (under the script of 1918) to the USSR was not excluded also.

In 1940th years even a school mediocre pupil knew, that the contract of 1939 had forced the enemies of the Soviet Union to be at the war with each other and in fact had formed the Allies of World War II (anti- Hitlerite coalition), but currently, these obvious things became secret for some reason.

There are not «secrets» and «secrets» of history of the Soviet- German treaty. There is the actual history of diplomatic preparation of Europe to the World War II in which both Germany and Britain lost to the Stalin diplomacy. The lost never accept and also to us will never forgive us for this diplomatic defeat which finally forced the West to be at the war against Germany on a side of the USSR.

… So. What were the conditions at the moment of the visit of Ribbentrop to Moscow and signings of the pact? Hitlerite Germany had been quickly gaining in strength. Its strategic objective was a gain of vital space in the East. The German management needed to solve three problems for its achievement. First, it was necessary to arm Germany and to prepare it for conducting the war, i.e. «to shake fetters of the Versailles peace from itself». Secondly, they needed to gather all ethnic Germans «under the Reich». Thirdly, it was necessary to bring the well- armed Germany together with its allies closely to the borders of the USSR. These objectives were perfectly known in the West. Therefore, there were not the objections against the Anschluss of Austria and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia; they did not see anything reprehensible in the establishment of the fascist regimes in Romania and Hungary.

According to Hitler, Poland was the most important issue from the point of view of preparation for attack to the USSR. It laid on the direction of the future impact. Germany has tried to agree with the Poles «in a peaceful way», thinking, that there are all backgrounds for this purpose. However, Poland had a contract about mutual aid with the Frenchmen, but after Munich the price of it was a penny in opinion of the Poles. In 1934 Hitler signed the non-aggression pact with Poland for 10 years. Relations of Germany and Warsaw were fine. During the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, Hitler gave a great part to the Poles. It was Teshen. It meant that the Poles could be necessary as allies. Therefore, in autumn in 1938 and in the beginning of 1939, Germany suggested Poland to continue and expand the cooperation, having transformed the nonaggression pact in the 25-year allied contract against Russia. Ribbentrop hinted the Poles, that they can get the large territorial increments in the East in case of their agreement. He promised Warsaw to help also with the decision of the Jewish question, to leave Poznan and Verkhnya Silesia to the Poles.The only thing which was asked by Hitler was that the Poles would return Danzig to Germany agree to create an ex-territorial corridor between this city and Germany. If something turned out from this invention, the Polish armies, undoubtedly, would go to Russia. Poland suddenly showed intractability. Hitler could not take it in sense the reason of that. He had even promised a part of Ukraine to the Poles a part of Ukraine. When Hitler had not received the answer, he decided that the Poles did not want to participate in a sharing of «the Soviet pie» they should be punished.

Why did the Poles show their intractability? It has been not clear till now. It is known, however, that Warsaw did nothing, preliminary not having consulted to Paris and London. It is not excluded, that they had assured the Poles, that they could reckon on the protection of allies.

These days, Hitler also had decided to offer the Nonaggression pact to Stalin, understanding, that the position of the USSR had been getting the crucial importance for succession of events in the Europe. Thus, he it wanted «to kill three birds with one stone»: to liquidate Poland, to show the West if it did not share by the colonies with him, the union of Germany with Russia would be possible; «to hammer a wedge between Russia and the western democracies». The last point was especially important.

Stalin, however, had hesitated with the answer for some months. If he chose the union with the Englishmen and the Frenchmen, only Russia would be at war .Our country was still not ready to war.

«How many divisions can you develop in the continent in case of the beginning of the war?» — Stalin asked Englishmen. «Two immediately, and two more a little bit later», — answered those. «Here is how! — Stalin sneered, — And whether you know, how many divisions do the Germans have?..»

What did Germany offer to us? It offered the peace, even for some time. From military actions the Soviet Union received also Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukrainian and Belarus grounds of Poland, Bessarabia for abstention. The strategically important foreground was created for us, covered the central areas of the USSR in a case of the occurrence of the war.

The situation at that moment could be compared to the position on a football field on which Hitler suddenly throw the Polish ball. «Stop it!» — the Occidentalists spoke to us. — No. Don’t stop it», — Stalin answered them. The whole diplomatic dialogue had been consisted of that , while Stalin did not kick a goal into a gate of the English and French command, to their extreme displeasure.

The further is known. England and France declared the war to Hitler, but they were not too actively at the war observing for defeat of Poland. The USSR moved forward the boundaries on the West up to the «line of Kerzon», having restored the former borders of Russia. It seemed, everything went according to the plan, but the conditions had sharply changed in 9 months. Hitler had crushed the Frenchmen and Englishmen and occupied the whole western part of the Europe, having taken the Balkans, Denmark and Norway. England had ceased to be the serious military factor in the Europe without France. Stalin’s plan that Hitler would stick in the West, was not justified.

… Till spring of 1941, the Germans, however, negotiated with us. The set of books is written concerned that fact how it was possible to avoid the war with Germany if the USSR had occupied only Bessarabia in 1940 and if it «had not touch» Northern Bukovina, if Molotov had been not speaking about Finland Bulgaria and the Black Sea passages during the visit to Berlin in November, 1940.However all this is a nonsense. At this time, the plan of «Barbaross» , had been creating. It was affirmed on the 18th of December, 1940.For derivation of attention of Stalin Germans even suggested us to engage … in India.

Eventually, Hitler persuaded himself that it was not necessary further to delay the beginning of the war against the USSR. First, he believed, that having crushed Russia, he would deprive England of the last ally in the European continent, and London, finally, would accept his conditions. Secondly, the USSR would be crushed within several weeks or months. Thirdly, danger of involving in the war of the USA on a side of Englishmen had loomed. Therefore, it was necessary to try to bring out of operation of the USSR before the USA would enter the war.

The history in the subjunctive mood is not written in a subjunctive mood, as it is known. Therefore, the reasoning on the subject matter what would be if something was not so, and differently, as a rule, are ungrateful activity. Nevertheless, we shall try to imagine, that would be, if the nonaggression pact was not broken by Hitler.

England, certainly, could not release the Europe from fascism even in the union with the USA. Only to 1944-1945s they managed to expose together no more than 86 divisions in the European front. If Germany was not at the war with the Soviet Union, it would get over with them without effort. However, to 1945 the USA had a nuclear bomb but such works were conducted also in Germany and who knows whose side would take top in this race; especially, if Germany did not conduct the war of attrition with us.

If we argue in the subjunctive mood, then it is pertinently to consider a question what would happen if the Pact of Molotov did not take place. The war would begin significantly earlier. We would have to be at the war in the territory and without the allies. The War would begin with the boundaries laying on many hundreds of kilometers closer to Moscow and Leningrad. Considering paces of the German onslaught in 1941 it is possible to speak with confidence, that Moscow would fall, the Germans would send through Volga, and the war would be tightened for many years.

There is one more important point. The behavior of our allies would be absolutely unpredictable in this case. In fact, they f thought not of defeat of Nazism from the very beginning of the war, and how to tighten the conflict between the USSR and Germany, to achieve their maximal mutual easing. It would be easier for them to do it if it was possible to involve us in the war with Hitler, and to stand aside; and it is not imagination.

There were the nonaggression pact with France Germany already. It was necessary to gain only the same contract with England where before the attack Gess, the nearest colleague of Hitler, the   Fuhrer of the Reich had been directed with confidential mission to the USSR.

The achievement of the Soviet diplomacy consisted in that it had avoided the conflict with Hitler and had made available to enter the Englishmen and the Frenchmen the war with him contrary to their plans and intentions. It became the decisive background for creation of the united front after an attack of Germany to the Soviet Union.

The Defeat and the occupation of France, the bombardment of London and the destruction of Coventry, the huge losses of the Englishmen and the Americans because of the underwater war in the Atlantic had not left to the western leaders of other choice how to go on the union with hated it Russia. They tried to be pulled out from this union during the war, but could not make this.

The huge victory of the Stalin diplomacy which had begun the defeat of fascism from the making of the Pact of Molotov- Ribbentrop, took a great role in that.

In 1939 the Soviet Union «had not sold a soul to a devil». It has sat down to play cards with devils and won them. In a honest way.


Original: http://narpolit.ru/history/igra_v_karty_s_chertyami_19–05-28.htm


Translation from the Russian by Kalyzhnaya Irina APIR Center

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