Valery Timoshenko – Raskol-Gangs оr New «Sandpit Generals»

More than forty years passed since Brazilian writer J.Amadu wrote his famous novel “captains of the sands” about the life of Brazilian waifs. Hollywood already filmed the less famous movie, having raised infant inhabitants of the slums to the rank of “generals”. But problems disclosed by the authors still worry general public all around the world. Moreover, level of youth crime has grown considerably, and criminal itself accepted more cruel and cynic forms.

The big problems of “failed state”

In May, 2009 Lowy institute of international policy in Sidney carried out a conference with representatives of public, business circles and leading politicians of Australia and Oceania. Topic of the conference was a disastrous situation in Papua New Guinea. According to the latest data more then 1 million people in this country living bellow the poverty line. Child mortality is under 40%. There is a shortage of teachers and doctors in the country, education and public health service are in terrible conditions. World financial crisis even worsened the situation. Country’s budget decreased for 25%, and national currency kina depreciated as much. Economic development of the country is on the 91st place among the rest 120 developing countries.

Though Papua New Guinea was considered as the most promising independent state in South-Pacific region. Political system of the country was one of the most stable in the Oceania. PNG has built “parliamentary democracy” on the British sample. Economics in Papua New Guinea was oriented on market relations and strictly followed all directions of IMF (International Monetary Fund) and other international organizations. Numerous economic and social programs sponsored by United Nations, European Union, Australia and other developed countries were realized in the country. Mineral resources of the country, industry and finance were in ‘reliable hands’ of international firms and transnational corporations. To the opinion of US Congress delegation that visited the country in the 1989, abovementioned facts allowed PNG to have “high potential for rapid and prolong economic growth”[i].

However expected “economic miracle” didn’t happen. From the beginning of the 90s country has been facing growing economic, political and social problems. The country fell into economy decay. The size of a total internal product was steadily decreasing. Standard of living were felling down. Country dependence on mining industry, which is 70% of all export, became vivid. Local administration of PNG legally deducted 95% out of all legal payments for mineral using while landowners legally received only 5%. This provoked the wave of disturbance, robberies and sabotage which caused financial losses for millions of dollars. The government failed to ensure its obligations of wage payment and debts liquidation. Expenses on public health services, education and infrastructure development were sharply reduced. It reinforced the conflicts between tribes and intensified the struggle for land resources. Lawlessness and disorder involved almost the whole country. “Time of troubles” has set in PNG, wrote the Australian R.May [ii].

In 2003 Australian Center of independent researches published two reports “Papua New Guinea on the Brink” and “Aid has failed the Pacific”. There it was stated that economic help ‘corrupted’ ruling circles of PNG, has generated a principle of dependence among the population and to some extent caused economic crisis in the country[iii]. Papua New Guinea was proclaimed ‘failed state’ that is unable to solve its numerous political, economic and social problems.

Great problem of Papua New Guinea recent years is high level of organized crime. Being spread among the youth it accepted the forms of specific phenomenon named “RASKOLISM”. The term occurred from the word “raskol” which means bandit from the current –pisin (pidzhin-English), though the initial meaning was ‘thief’. English equivalent of this word had humorous shade and mostly used in the meaning of “bad school guys”. The term “raskol” was used in Papua New Guinea from the middle of 60th, and mostly was used to define non-formal youth groups such as rockers or hippies, who were picking and stealing. Since that time ‘raskolism’ made huge step from stilling to well-armed organized crime. Now the term “raskol” has changed the meaning entirely. Members of ‘raskol’ gangs are well armed with cold and fire-arms, behave outrageously in cities and villages of Papua New Guinea inspiring fear and terror on citizens and foreigners. “Violence in cities, stilling, murders, burglary and rapes turned into such serious problems of public order that it became the main point in the policy of national security”- mentioned specialists of American Center “East-West”[iv].

Nowadays Papua New Guinea is a one of the most criminogenic countries. Port Moresby takes the last place – 195 in the rate of the safe capitals of the world. According to the international crime survey conducted by British Interior Ministry, number of murders in Port Moresby with population of 250 thousand people, is three times higher then in Moscow and twenty three times higher then in London[v]. In year 2005 American magazine “Foreign Policy” defined top 5 cities – global center of crime, where PNG takes ‘honorable’ fourth place. It is hard to find someone who is not a member of a criminal group or who is not a corrupted policemen. Both of them being in constant interaction managed to kill 54 people out of 100 000 citizens every year[vi]. Western Mess Media regularly inform the harrowing facts of crimes committed by ‘raskol’ gangs. Armed with rifles M-16 they rob banks, steal cars, rape people, and plunder on streets and roads. Widely known the case, when during the robbery of the wrecked ambulance even injured nurse was raped[vii]. From the attacks of ‘raskol’ gangs nor massive walls, nor contemporary signaling, nor armed police are effective. Moreover, between police and ‘raskol’ gangs there is a real war. Recently they grabbed even the authorized police representative enabled to fight against ‘raskolism’. Disappointed official promised to strengthen the fight against the youth crime[viii].

Attacks on foreigners became usual in Papua New Guinea, therefore security measures are extremely high. International guidebook of hotels in Papua New Guinea “Lonely Planet” mention exactly the following: “If you enter the territory of a hotel and you have an impression that you are in prison of  a high security – it is a good hotel”[ix]. Indeed, almost every hotel has high fences, energized barbwire, cameras, observation towers, projectors and well armed security forces with dogs. Persons under 18 are forbidden to leave the hotel without the adults any time a day. And no one is allowed to leave the hotel without security and hotel car in the dark time.

Native people of the Port Moresby are not in the better position. Despaired to defend themselves from constant attacks most of them apply for help of magic and witchcraft. For example, one citizen of the capital, former teacher from Great Britain, with a help of native shaman “spelled” his house from the attacks. However it didn’t help, in August, 2007 he was killed by machete during next robbery[x]. Inhabitants of Papua New Guinea were proclaimed a “nation of prisoners under the power of ‘raskol’ gang[xi].

Raskolism as a form of civil war?

Many years whole scientific world tries to explain a phenomenon of growth of the youth crime. Numerous works of sociologists, teachers and psychologists give precise classification of non-formal youth unities (rockers, rappers, skinheads, hippies and etc.). They give definitions to concept “youth gang”, reveal their features, and try to explain the reasons of cruelty and violence. In the report of World Health Organization it is noted that youth gangs are formed in such places where established social system has failed and there is no alternative forms of civilized behavior. Authors of the report name some socio-economic and communal interpersonal factors that push young people into the gangs. Among them; absence of opportunities for social or economic mobility in the society where consumer way of life is aggressively preached; decrease in effectiveness of the low enforcement bodies: study termination, low payment of common labor. Rapid demographic changes among young people, modernization, migration, urbanization and always changing social policy, all abovementioned facts contributed to the growth of youth violence.  Poor population began to concentrate mostly in cities and most of them were young people. Fast growth of population and the accelerated urbanization have led to unemployment and deterioration of living conditions. All that turned in frustration and pressure in the youth environment. In the result such precondition were developed that young men began to commit small crimes and acts of violence, particularly under the influence of contemporaries. This also concerns the situation in Papua New Guinea, which the authors mentioned in the report too. They consider evolution of criminal groupings in Papua New Guinea in a wide context of the decolonization of subsequent social and political reorganizations, and also of fast population growth which lurch the rates of economic growth. At constant growth of unemployment and rigid restriction of social security – young men in PNG were deprived lawful ways of earnings, and necessary social support in the period between ‘leaving school’ and the ‘work beginning’. In these conditions, without seeing any support from a society, young people have made a choice in favour of criminality and violence[xii].

In reality, social and economic situation in PNG looks depressing. High incomes from mineral resources and woods have not led to economic growth and have not improved a population social status. The quantity of the unemployed in the country reaches 1,5 million people and increases annually on 75 thousand. Unemployment among youth population is more then 90%[xiii]. The electricity, a waterpipe and other blessings of a civilization are inaccessible to the majority of inhabitants of the country. The level of health services is extremely low. 80% of population of the country is at poverty line and has no prospects on the future. At the same time country’s natural resources are plundered by transnational corporations. Incomes from licences on tuna catch in the coastal waters, given out by foreign companies are too small. Forest riches are dramatically destroyed, bringing incomes only to the corrupted officials and local breeding aristocracy. The level of corruption in the country is on the first places in the world. American scientist Bruce Knauft noted that Papua New Guinea obviously doesn’t approach to «formation of well organized, possessing, modern liberal democracy – the fantastic aim which we have established for ourselves and for all people in the world»[xiv].

Principal duties of any state are to ensure the protection of citizens and to create conditions for economic development. In the conditions of world globalization state role in realization of these functions considerably increases, and if ruling elite is not in a condition to solve these problems, public relations will invariably fall to a stage of “civil war”. Experts from the Oxford University by means of difficult calculations have defined a threshold of public degradation to the level of “civil war”. The calculations based on the correlations between quantity of murders and total number of population. Among the countries which are coming close to this threshold, they name also Papua New Guinea[xv].  The vacuum of the power in the country is immediately filled with other informal structures, even such ugly, as ‘raskol’ gangs. According to B.Knauft ‘raskol’ gangs surpass the law forces in many points. They even establish own ‘low and order’ in supervised regions. Foreign observers notice that ‘raskol’ gangs enjoy the sympathy and support of a considerable part of the population. Some consider them as “fighters for justice” who are fighting against corrupted officials and cruel police, and against ‘a small group of rich’, which got hold of national goods. And participants of ‘raskol’ gangs constantly position themselves as brave partisans, original «Robin Hoods», robbing rich to share with the poor. The reporting of American journalist Nick Easen “How I survive in Port Moresby” is very indicative. In the article he advises foreigners to put on poor and ordinary clothes to avoid troubles with gangsters[xvi]. In one of Internet forums, the Australian volunteer in Port Moresby wrote that hearings about evil deeds of ‘raskol’ gangs are extremely exaggerated. Fighters of ‘raskol’ gangs are “normal teens, compelled to make ends in the antagonistic city environment with the limited possibilities” and “belonging to a new class of the lost people»[xvii].

Born in Jungle

Despite causal effects of growth of the youth criminality in Papua New Guinea, ‘raskolism’ has it own specific features. They are caused by social and mental tendencies of Melanesian society’s development. Being at stage of primitive-communal system Papuan tribes contain strongly pronounced signs of “primitive communism”. These signs have not disappeared till now. Papuans accepte many blessings of a civilization but thinking remained at level of Stone Age. Despite the external civilization, they continue to lead communal way of life. In community, as well as at communism, a distribution principle: “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”. Each member of the tribe works as he can, and each member of tribe has equal rights on dwelling, food, clothes, bows, axes and etc. Everything is common in the village. Russian journalist A.Zamyshljaev, who visited PNG wrote with the irony that at such way of life there always will be someone who does nothing, but uses the same blessings as everyone. Being unable to refuse such person (everything is common) tribe continued to supply the parasite. But sooner or later, such person is expelled from a community, and he loafs along the country until settle in a city. But there he also can’t find an application to himself. With requirement of a usual person he is not able to do anything or simply doesn’t want to. Moreover he has collective thinking: everything is common[1] [2]! This discourse has some reason. Destruction of a rural community and spreading of capitalist principles were the main reason of a mass outcome in cities. There they tried to organize the life according to their traditional representations. As a matter of fact ‘raskol’ gangs are primitive transferring of communal rural life to city conditions. Thus to adopt a way of life of western civilization for many of them was too difficult. All western representations, getting to naive consciousness of Papuans, accepted some times the most unexpected forms. In the result absolutely fantastic and unique movements appeared such as ‘John Frum’ and ‘cargo cult’. An essence of religious movement ‘John Frum’ described by Soviet ethnographer L. Mints, came to a naive faith of Melanesian people that ‘blessings of civilization’ that fallen into their hands (canned food, sweets etc.) grow somewhere on trees and which are hidden from them by ‘white people’[2] [3]. The cult of the cargo which has arisen under the influence of Christianity, asserts that the Papuans who have got to paradise live in full abundance and take care of Papuans by sending them gifts, but malicious ‘white people’ intercept their cargoes and take everything for themselves. Sometimes situation reached to the point of irrationality. The wave of civil disobedience has swept in the country. Pending, when the ‘white people’ will return their cargoes, Papuans stopped working on plantations and factories. As a result the whole villages and even cities were dying from hunger. Being disturbed by such facts United Nations and other international organizations sent to Papua New Guinea the humanitarian help. Thus Papuans affirmed the correctness of their actions, and cult gripped more and more supporters.

Such cults engendered in society of Papua New Guinea the principle of parasitism and permissiveness. It was reflected in the report “Aid left Oceania wide open”. Small larceny, bribery, extortion were not something forbidden in the mass consciousness of population. A.Zamyshljaev writes that among the Russians who worked in PNG mostly under the contracts there was a special verb for a designation of small larceny – “to papuan”[3] [4]. ‘Raskol’ gangs are also under the influence of these cults. Expropriation of somebody’s property for them no more then a fair leveling distribution. Moreover, they build their gangs using the structure of a traditional tribe. Historically in tribes of Papua New Guinea the machismo prevailed. The man was both the getter and the soldier. Breeding of the boys accordingly was directed to the achievements of these qualities. In the book “Teenage gangs: a global sight” – American scientists M.Duffy and S.Gillig pointed out that ‘raskol’ gangs are successors of the old forms of Melanesian social organization in which wars between the tribes developed the dispositions to murders and rapes [4] [5].

Nowadays in Port Moresby four basic ‘rascol’ conglomerates are acting: “Bomai”, “Koboni”, “Mafia” and “Brigade 585” members of which is the youth at the age from 15 till 25 years. There are no ‘dismantlings’ between the conglomerates because territory is accurately differentiated. At the head of a conglomerate there is a leader – ‘father’ or ‘big man’. Position of the leader depends on its experience and ability to provide well-being, to the members of his organization, of course by criminal way. Both reputation of the leader and loyalty of the members depends on quality of granting of some kind ‘social credit’. Conglomerates include certain quantity of smaller gangs which have own leaders and posses big degree of autonomy. In the name of these smaller gangs obviously traced the claim for originality: “Blood”, “Gang of the Half-blooded”, “Angels of the Hell”, “Dark Force” and even “Ku-kluks-clan”, “Al Capone”, “Triad” and “Melbourne murderers”. The structure and the size of such groupings depend on the tribal organization and individual qualities of the leader. If conglomerates are based on any of ethnically homogeneous group structural divisions reflect “ethnic heterogeneity of the city environment”[5] [6]. The entrance and exit from the gang has voluntary nature and isn’t limited by restrict ‘laws’. Often leaders don’t know the exact quantity of members of the gangs. It is one of the features of the ‘raskol’ gang.

Another feature of ‘raskol’ gang is inclination for murders and rapes. It is also connected to some degree with traditional breeding in tribes. Each man in the tribe is obliged to pass initiation ceremony and approve the name of a real man. This tradition also used for the entrance into the ranks of ‘raskol’ gangs. The examinee should commit a crime in front of the companions. The best proof of “manliness” is murder and rape. Beginners prefer to choose rapes because of a little penalty, for the murder more strict punishment is stipulated. Moreover in the thinking of “traditional society” rapes are not a big crime because of the low status of women. The violence over women and sexual abuse became a part of traditional culture of ‘raskol’ gangs. According to the Australian radio one third of all women in PNG were exposed to sexual abuse[6] [7]. When participants of the attack seized by police were asked why besides the robbery they raped mother and daughter presented there, the naive and cynical answer has followed: «to brag!»[7] [8]. It is not surprising that Papua New Guinea has big problems with venereal diseases and AIDS.

However, historically Papuans were not so blood-thirsty. In Melanesian tradition there was enough to kill a pig or cassowary of the opponent, to prove the ‘manliness’. Propensity to violence over people began to develop under the influence of the European culture, first of all after the American cinema. Papuans with children’s naivety perceived seriously everything that occurred in Hollywood films which were shown allover the country – in cities, settlements, remote villages, cinemas and video saloons. The cult of “brawny Rambo”, figuratively ‘macho’, killing the enemies to the right and to the left, was widely adopted in the youth environment. Frequently negative personages were perceived by the youth as the heroes fighting against “damned white people”. Thereupon M. Duffy and S. Gillig with bitterness noticed that teenagers from ‘raskol’ gangs in a pointed manner dress like shahids and carry vests with Osama bin Laden’s image[8] [9].

Last years ‘raskol’ gangs are actively involved in activity of the international organized crime. Weakness of law enforcement bodies and high corruption minimize risks of criminal activity and compensate all expenses of the international criminal syndicates. Their activity is reduced to drug traffic, money-laundering, human traffic, weapon, and illegal immigration. First of all Papua New Guinea is considered to be one of the important reloading point of drugs from South East Asia to the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ‘Raskol’ gangs not only help in transportation of drugs, they also have conceived a liking for their use. Drug Metham-phetamine or ‘ice’ is of a high interest because it is cheap enough and easily reproduced in local conditions. According to the police reports in Port Moresby this drug of local manufacture is distributed in bars, casino, cinemas and other places of public using. Usage of this drug gives an impression of “strong super person, therefore it is so ‘hard for police to struggle with participants of raskol-bands”[9] [10].

‘Raskolism’ in Papua New Guinea was extended not only in cities, but also in countryside. ‘Raskol’ gangs attack transport transferring cargoes, on warehouses of firms and enterprises, are engaged in stealing cars and racket. One of the reason why struggle against the gangs in remote mountain areas doesn’t bring expected results is that they often share extraction with the community. In the history of PNG there were cases when ‘raskol’ gangs laid under tribute small cities, like Kainantu in a province Eastern Highlands or completely supervised them for a long time, establishing there own laws and orders as it happens with the city of Okuk.

Like cures like.

Struggle with ‘rascolism’ is the major problem of ruling circles of Papua New Guinea. In this struggle the government uses various set of forms and methods. In the country there is a special department on youth affairs is operating, various programs on training, retraining and youth employment are developed. The authorities organize public works for young people, as to clean streets or cut lawns. But it is obviously not enough to distract youth from street criminality. Even the help of international public organizations does not correct the affairs of state. Church organizations were also involved in struggle against ‘raskolism’. Preachers of various faiths try to explain Papuans the principles of good and harm. But even here they don’t gain much success. For example it’s not clear for Papuans why during ritual dances it is impossible to make sexual movements.  The church acts in a role of the intermediary between ‘raskol’ gangs and the authorities. With its help it was possible even to persuade some of them to surrender, lay down arms and confess. However, last time it happened in the mid-nineties. M. Duffy and S. Gillig note that influence of the church constantly decreases, the quantity of grave crimes grows and besieged townspeople became more skeptical about church strategy[10] [11]. Some religious figures even have started talking about Christianity crisis in Papua New Guinea [11] [12].

The main forces of struggle against ‘rasolism’ are law enforcement bodies. The country authorities constantly undertake measures upon police strengthening, toughening of punishments and expansion of prison system. The main component of the struggle against ‘raskol’ gangs is «precautionary measures». But police itself regularly practice violence during spot-checks and round-ups in the areas supervised by ‘raskol’ gangs. In year 2005 American organization “Human Rights Watch” has conducted research and published the report about terrifying position of children and a police arbitrariness in Papua-new Guinea. According to legal experts, policemen of Papua-new Guinea participate in brutal beatings, tortures and rapes of children. In the report it is told about “epidemic of violence against children” which were arrested or detained by police. It occurred that detained children were pricked by knifes, kicked, beaten by weapon butts, iron rods, wooden sticks, fists, rubber bludgeons and chairs, some of them were forced to chew and swallow condoms[12] [13]. The authors reported that position with violence applied against children in Papua-new Guinea is the worst in the world. Beatings are so traditional that officers undertake nothing to hide it. They scoff at juvenile boys, forcing them to struggle naked or have sex with cellmates or police officers. The majority of police officers use the juvenile girls and young girls for sexual joys. It seldom becomes known about the rapes, because victims prefer to keep silent because of the shame[13] [14].

Situation with infringement of human rights in PNG has not changed essentially. According to “Human Rights Watch” organization in 2008 police still continue to commit arbitrary and illegal murders of children and teenagers, to abuse and discriminate women and children, all that is accompanied by police corruption and impunity. In regional branch of National court in Bark were considered 235 criminal cases which were in manufacture since 2004. In prison Buimo more then 200 prisoners call a hunger strike in protest against slow passage of affairs in judicial instances[14] [15].

Corruption in police became the main theme of mass media in PNG and other countries. Press constantly informed about the police relation with ‘raskol’-gangs. In 2005 the big group of the high-ranking police officers were arrested and accused in human traffic, money-laundering, in organization of prostitution and illegal gamblings, swindle and larceny. It was proved that police employed the members of ‘raskol’ gangs, equipped them with arms in order to commit robberies in police’s favour[15] [16]. Even the former prime minister of the country B.Skate was accused of being a ‘godfather’ of the ‘raskol’ gangs. In one of his interview he bragged that: « if I order to any of my brigade to kill, they’ll kill»[16] [17]. But B.Skatet himself connects all that accusations with the intrigues of the political opponents.

Chineses are to blame for everything!

Recently in a foreign press, especially Australian, more often appear messages about the growth of influence of the Chinese organized crime on ‘raskol’ gangs. Press informed about mass inflow of ethnic Chinese from the beginning of a new millennium. During the period from 2003 to 2005 in PNG arrived more than 10 thousand persons from Southern China[17] [18]. Presupposed that the most part of emigrants, is anyhow connected with “Triad”, and engaged in unlawful activity as: drug traffic, people, transportation of illegal immigrants, illegal gaming and prostitution. The Chinese mafia groups have impregnated and have corrupted the highest police ranks of Papua New Guinea, interfering in struggle against crisis of a public order and posing potential threat of national safety of Australia[18] [19]. They bought up all police in PNG, and incorruptible officers are simply destroyed [19] [20]. The Australian Center of Independent Studies specifies on close cooperation of the Chinese brigades with ‘raskol’ gangs. Chinese, according to analysts of the centre, made ‘raskolism’ more organized, have trained the gangs in strict conspiracy and discipline, which made struggle against this phenomenon even more complicated[20] [21].

Concern of Australians in «Chinese threat» is quite explainable. Australia as the former mother country and the present main sponsor bears special responsibility for a situation in Papua New Guinea. In the early nineties the Australian police have undersigned full powerlessness in struggle against ‘raskolism’. In 1993 public debate was carried out in Australia about possibility to send police forces in PNG for rendering the assistance. But this idea has not found much support in a society as could be apprehended as “new Australian colonialism”[21] [22]. In 2004 the Australian government nevertheless has dared to send in PNG 230 policemen and to allocate 1 milliard Australian dollars on the five years’ program of cooperation. However results from these measures are not visible yet. Therefore, probably, it is convenient to fall down responsibility for a situation in Papua New Guinea on someone else, for example, on Chinese.

The phantom wanders on a planet, a phantom ‘Raskolism’.

The XXI century has brought many challenges to system of global safety which are widely discussed by politicians and scientists. But only few of them regard the crime growth in youth environment as a global problem. According to the American National Gang Centre (NGC) of teenage violence prevention, invariable growth of youth criminality is observed all over the world since 2002. Only in the USA the quantity of the teenagers involved in gangs, for January, 2007 has reached a half-million people. According to NGC “Gangs are lethal illness, from which medicine can not find the cure till now”[22] [23]. So there is no reason to speak about the developing or poorly developed countries. Now mass media constantly publish sensational messages on acts of youth gangs in the countries of Asia. After the film “Millionaire from the slums” they began to talk about youth criminality in India. It occurred that practically in all cities of this country operating thousand gangs which are formed on ethnic, religious, exclusive and even to a sexual principle. In capital of Thailand Bangkok even the army is involved in struggle against youth gangs[23] [24]. In Manila, capital of Philippines, police can’t stop bloody dismantling between youth groupings. In East Timor gangs of teenagers create the basic problem to the peace-making contingent billeted in the country under the decision of the United Nations. Youth criminality has widely penetrated into the system of schools and universities in Malaysia. Even in safe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan the splash of youth crime is registered.

In 2004 in British “Guardian” appeared the article written by David Fickling “Raskol gangs are ruling in the worst city of the world”. In this article author uncover to the wide public the concepts of ‘Raskolism’ and ‘raskol’ gangs for the first time. Though he connects these concepts only with Papua New Guinea, it is clear that they are quite applicable concerning youth criminality in many countries of a Third World. ‘Raskolism’ has general reasons and the general consequences with other gangs. According to Sinclair Dinnen, a professor at the Australian National University, roots of ‘raskolism’ are hidden in ‘colonialism processes’, in “destruction of traditional culture”, in “poverty, and inequality, in violent involving of postcolonial economy into the world market where the omnipotent nations and transnational corporations are dominating”[24] [25]. Until such situation is changed, new «sandpit generals» will appear again and again in cities and settlements of developing countries.


Translation by Marina Osipova.


[i] Problems in Paradise: United States Interests in the South Pacific. Report of a Congressional delegation to the South Pacific. August 5-6, 1989. Wash.: US Government Printing Office. 1990? P. 671

[ii] State and Society in Papua New Guinea: the First Twenty Five Years. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Electronic version 2001. –

[iii] See.: Susan Windybank and Mike Manning. Papua New Guinea On the Brink // The Center for Independent Studies Issue Analysis. N. 30. March 12. 2003 – Hughes.  Aid has failed the Pacific // The Centre for Independent Studies Issue Analysis. N. 33. May 7. 2003 –

[iv] The Pacific Islands: Politics, Economics, and International Relations: Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Center, International Relations Program. 1991, P. 35


[vi] The Gardian, UK. September 23, 2004, p. 5

[vii] Ibid.



[x] The Scotsman. Scotland, UK, Aug. 27, 2007

[xi] Sydney Morning Herald. June 19, 2004

[xii] Насилие и его влияние на здоровье. Доклад о ситуации в мире /Под ред. Этьенна Г. Круга и др./ Пер. с англ. — М: Издательство «Весь Мир», 2003. С. 37-40

[xiii] The Australian. Sydney. August 21, 2008

[xiv] W. Clark. Remembering Papua New Guinea. An Eccentric Ethnography. Pandanus Books, 2003

[xv] Lisa Chauvet, Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, “Paradise Lost: The Costs of State Failure in the Pacific,” paper prepared for the World Institute for Development Economics Research, November 2006. P. 15 –

[xvi] Time. Sydney, Nov. 30, 2003

[xvii] Mores…
[1] [26] [27]

[2] [28] См.: Минц Л. М. Сломанные стрелы. М. 1991

[3] [29] [27]

[4] [30] Teen Gangs: A Global View (A World View of Social Issues) (Hardcover) by Maureen P. Duffy [31] (Editor), Scott Edward Gillig [32] (Editor), Greenwood Press (March 30, 2004), P. 152, 160

[5] [33] Ibid. P. 161

[6] [34] [35]

[7] [36] Ibid.

[8] [37] Teen Gangs… P. 164

[9] [38] Papua New Guinea Post-Courier. Port Morsbey. 6 February 2008

[10] [39] Teen Gangs… P. 160

[11] [40] See: [41]

[12] [42] Police Beatings, Rape, and Torture of Children in Papua New Guinea / Human Rights Watch Publications September 2005 – [43]

[13] [44] Ibid.

[14] [45] 2008 Human Rights Report: Papua New Guinea  / US Department of State. February 25, 2009 – [46]

[15] [47] The Age. Melbourne. February 19, 2005

[16] [48] Sydney Morning Herald, January 3, 2005

[17] [49] Sydney Morning Herald, February 19–20, 2005

[18] [50] The Age, February 19, 2005

[19] [51] Forbes, “Danger On Our Doorstep: Organized Crime Takes Hold in Papua New Guinea” // Defender. Sydney. Autumn 2005. P. 22–24

[20] [52] [53]

[21] [54] Green Left Weekly. Sydney. 17 November 1993

[22] [55]

[23] [56] [57].

[24] [58] Teen Gangs… P. 153

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